The farming of animal products creates high levels of methane gas and carbon dioxide - one common estimate is that the meat industry produces 15 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Intensive farming of animals also has a profound impact on the physical environments; rearing larger animals requires vast acreage (spurring deforestation), and animals require a huge amount of fresh water to survive. The worst offenders in the reared-animal category are lamb, beef and pork.
There's no need to give up meat entirely, but going meat-free more often and choosing local, grass-fed, free-range or wild-caught options are great ways to make a small difference. istockphoto.com
Baby food was once almost always packaged in teeny tiny glass jars, but these days it is becoming increasingly common to see small single-serve pouches. These impossible-to-clean sealed pouches cannot be recycled and, as a result, like so many of the other items on this list, once they are used, they're destined to spend far too many years in a landfill.
Instead of buying these bad-for-the-environment products, choose the old-school glass jars that can be recycled and reused. If you're really into the whole small pouch thing, get your hands on some resealable pouches that you can fill yourself then wash out and use again! Gerber/itemmaster
We all need to drink water, right? But relying on plastic water bottles from the supermarket, which can take 450 years or more to decompose, is a terrible way to meet your daily water requirements.
Instead, buy yourself a good water filter, and if you really can't go without a fizzy water fix, get yourself a sparkling water maker to dramatically reduce the number of plastic bottles you go through. While you're at it, buy yourself a reusable water bottle, so even when you are not home, you still have no reason to buy plastic. istockphoto.com
They may be convenient, but those coffee pods you (and everybody else) love so much take up to 500 years to break down! Factor in that coffee pod users probably consume at least one if not more cups of coffee each day, and the full impact of that cup of Joe seems anything but harmless. Opt instead for refillable coffee pods that you can pair with your favorite coffee brand. They can be filled and reused - and the old coffee grounds can be responsibly composted once your brew is ready. istockphoto.com
Disposable coffee cups
There's really no need to use disposable coffee cups these days - they can take up to 20 years to decompose! Instead, use a travel mug or thermos - or if you are in an office, bring a mug to work so you can avoid using the laminated paper cups. istockphoto.com
Disposable plates, cups and cutlery
From barbecues to children's parties , there are certain kinds of entertaining that do not lend themselves well to your best china plates and crystal glasses. Picking up a tall stack of plastic plates, forks and glasses is an easy solution for many an informal soirée, but opting for plastic or even paper is actually a terrible way to go. We know that plastic takes a really long time to break down in landfills, but did you know that paper plates that have been used for food (and therefore contaminated) cannot be recycled? That means that even paper plates, which may seem more eco-friendly, still end up alongside their plastic cousins in landfills, where (as we know) the biodegrading process is incredibly slow.
If you plan on reusing the plastic, that's actually not a bad choice - though it's likely not what you had in mind. When buying single-use plates and cutlery, go for recycled paper plates or other compostable options that are made from materials like bamboo, palm leaves, or even grass. If you can, add them to your own compost heap to ensure that they break down more rapidly. istockphoto.com
Farmed fish, and salmon in particular, can be some of the worst offenders among seafood options. Salmon farmers use open net-cages that live in the ocean to house their fish. Because the fish live in the ocean, all of the farm waste as well as antibiotic-laced feed and any diseases that the fish may be carrying are released into the surrounding waters, where they do considerable harm to the local aquatic life. Because farmed fish often live in overcrowded and confined enclosures, farmers use a cocktail of different antibiotics (regulated by the U.S. government) as well as other chemicals like fungicides to prevent disease.
As well as all of these effects upon the immediate surroundings, famed salmon is also really bad for the general population of wild fish. Farmers often use wild fish to nourish their livestock - for each 10 pounds of farmed salmon, more than 15 pounds of wild forage fish is needed, which can result in a net loss of wild fish.
If you are seriously in need of a piece of salmon, choose Alaskan sockeye salmon instead, or opt for another sustainable seafood selection such as sardines, Atlantic cod, hake, monkfish, mussels or clams, to name a few. istockphoto.com
Foods containing palm oil
Palm oil, an ingredient found in so many products - from bread, pizza dough, and potato chips to margarine, ice cream, soap, instant noodles, and some vegan dairy substitutions - is one of the world's leading causes of rainforest destruction. Unmonitored expansion in palm oil cultivation has led to frighteningly rapid destruction of rainforests and of carbon-rich peatland. Not only is this a contributor to global warming, but some of the world's most biologically diverse ecosystems, the homes of countless animal species, have been threatened by the same process.
As well as its hugely negative environmental impact, palm oil is simply an ingredient that is full of trans fats, so if you value your own health as well as the health of the planet, try to avoid it as much as possible istockphoto.com
Foods with high-fructose corn syrup
Here's another ingredient that can be found in many supermarket items and is terrible for the environment. Most corn that is grown to become high-fructose corn syrup is cultivated as a monoculture, meaning there is no crop rotation to replenish the soil's nutrients. As the soil in the fields becomes more and more unhealthy, pesticides and fertilizers have to be used more frequently and in greater quantities, which in turn weakens the topsoil. All of this taking of nutrients without giving anything back leads to huge "dead zones" - miles and miles of land where nothing will grow and nothing can live because the soil has been so stripped and damaged.
Sadly, the damage doesn't stop once the corn has been grown. Milling and transforming the corn into the sweet syrup that is prolifically used in candy, soda, salad dressings, granola bars, store-bought baked goods, breakfast cereal and even more common everyday supermarket items is a very energy-intensive process. istockphoto.com
Plastic bags at checkout
One of the easiest eco-friendly supermarket tips you should already be following is to avoid putting your items into a slew of plastic bags. No matter what you buy, you somehow always end up with a ridiculous number of plastic bags - so say no to the grocery store plastic and bring your own re-usable bags. You can find all sorts of shopping bags, many of which fold away to practically nothing, so there's really no reason not to buy some. istockphoto.com
Though straws may be an easy way to make drinking something more fun, their fleeting usefulness - and the fact that they (like most items made out of plastic) take hundreds of years to break down - means that they are terrible for the environment.
Plastic straws are such a scourge that the Taiwanese government is planning to ban them entirely by 2030, and McDonald's has stopped providing straws with drinks in its U.K. restaurants except by request. Ditch the plastic straws, and if you really need a straw in your life, opt for one made from bamboo, glass or stainless steel instead. istockphoto.com
Opt for the loose, unpackaged fruits and vegetables rather than those plastic-wrapped packages and Styrofoam trays that contain just a few pieces of fruit or veg. It makes sense, right? You don't really want the packaging, and it's essential to wash your produce before you cook with it anyway. Why buy something you are simply going to throw away (or hopefully recycle!) as soon as you get home? istockphoto.com
Plastic produce bags
So you aren't buying prepackaged items... but you can still do more! Avoid those thin, flimsy plastic produce bags when selecting loose produce items. If you're very dedicated, you could even opt to bring your own lightweight material bags that you can reuse over and over again. istockphoto.com
Aside from the fact that potato chips aren't the healthiest of snacks, the packaging they most frequently come in is just as unhealthy for our environment. The problem with potato chip bags is that, surprising though it may seem, the average bag is made up of as many as seven layers of plastic and foil! Because of these many minute layers, potato chip bags cannot be recycled (the layers are impossible to separate) and therefore end up in (you guessed it) landfills, where it can take almost 100 years for them to break down. istockphoto.com
The problem with rice is the sheer amount of water it requires to produce. A full one-third of the planet's annual freshwater use, according to Oxfam, goes to cultivating rice.
Rice requires double or triple the amount of water to grow compared to other cereal crops in order to produce the same weighted yield.
Luckily the Worldwide Fund for Nature and the System of Rice Intensification are working together to develop and implement a technique of rice farming that would enable farmers to produce more rice using less water, which is great news when you consider that rice is a staple food for half of the world's population! istockphoto.com
Like straws, sandwich bags are a single-use item that many people use once and then mindlessly throw away. Instead of choosing plastic, buy some reusable waxed sandwich wraps, which will keep your sandwich safe and sound until lunchtime! istockphoto.com
When perusing the dairy section of the supermarket, it may seem to make more sense to buy a set of six individual yogurts, right? They help with portion control, are easy to transport, and don't take up a lot of fridge space, all of which are very positive attributes. But it is much more environmentally friendly to buy a single large container rather than many small ones. Small vessels are harder to clean and more likely to be contaminated with food residue, which make them much more difficult to recycle. istockphoto.com
Sugar derived from sugarcane
One of the most common sources of refined sugar is sugarcane, which has some not-so-great environmental impacts. According to the World Wildlife Organization, sugarcane production often pollutes freshwater ecosystems with silt and fertilizers that wash into surrounding waterways from mills and farms. It also takes around 213 gallons of water to produce a single pound of refined cane sugar - nearly 9 gallons per teaspoon!
Like palm oil and high-fructose corn syrup, the popularity of refined cane sugar means that those who produce it want to do so at as fast a pace as possible, which results in rapid deforestation in some of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems.
Instead of highly processed refined cane sugar, seek out more eco-friendly alternatives like pesticide-free honey, stevia, organic whole-cane sugar, organic coconut sugar and organic brown rice syrup. istockphoto.com
Instead of buying boxes of tea bags, choose loose leaf tea - ideally bought from a bulk section with a reusable glass container - and buy a simple metal tea infuser. Not only do boxes of tea bags generate a lot of unnecessary cardboard and plastic, but the tea bags themselves are not simple to dispose of in an ecofriendly way, with their (often) chemical- and plastic-laced nylon mesh bag, and their string and staple (which must be removed and taken apart in order to adhere to recycling requirements). istockphoto.com
Because most white bread is so refined, it is not only less nutritious than whole-wheat and whole-grain relatives; it's also much less eco-friendly, requiring more energy and resources to produce, which means more energy used. This all on top of the environmental impact of simply farming the wheat, which involves some of the environmental costs typical of large-scale intensive agriculture.
Your best bet is to choose, as much as possible, organic, fair trade and local versions of whatever you are buying - a good place to start is with these most eco-friendly things you can buy at the supermarket.
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